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How Does A Story Make The News? Who Defines The News We See?

Estimated Read Time:  6 Minutes 24 Seconds

The news is defined by Mitchell (2007) as any “new information or information on current events that can be presented by print media (Newspapers, magazines), broadcast media (Television, radio), Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience”.


The news that consumers receive has gone through a process of news selection, essentially deeming what constitutes news and what does not.
How Does A Story Become Newsworthy? Galtung and Ruge (1973) have provided ten key qualities that a story should have to become newsworthy
These ten criteria are:  Timeliness (frequency) of the story, for example, a story must be within the news cycle and the information is new or recently releasedClarity or unambiguousnessProximity, or familiarity, of a story with regards to geographic and cultural proximitySignificance or amplitude of the story, Consonance (meets expectations or predictions)Novelty Balance, which includes supplying contrasting element…
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Jihad vs McWorld

Barber, B. R. (1995). ‘Jihad vs. McWorld’ Estimated Read Time: 6 Minutes 14 Seconds
This piece of work from Barber is perhaps one of the most interesting to study from the pre-9/11 period. 

Barber accurately provides reasoning and theoretical logic as to why these two theories of civilization will eventually clash (which they did).  

Jihad vs McWorld An Introduction Barber writes about two viable political figures which can exist in the modern world, at odds with each other in most points of view. These two political figures are known as ‘Jihad’ and ‘McWorld’. According to Barber, however, these two political characters have one thing in common; Jihad and McWorld are both hindering practical ways for citizens to govern themselves democratically.  
Jihad and McWorld can exist in the same countries at the same time and can cause many complications, as they can operate in equal strength but contrary objectives. 
Jihad is motivated by biased detestation towards nonconformists of sub-national …

The Legal, Political, and Economic Marginalization of Maori in New Zealand

Estimated Read Time: 6 Minutes 12 Seconds

Maori people living in New Zealand have found themselves in what Laguerre (1999), describes as ‘minoritized spaces’, dislocated from ‘white’, ‘normalized’, majority spaces.

This article seeks to explain the legal, economic, political, social and cultural marginalization of the Maori people within New Zealand and how this has affected Maori society.

The colonial paradigm for power and control will also be introduced to further understand how systematic marginalization has taken place in New Zealand.

What Is Racial Marginalization?  Cram, 2004, describes marginalization as; “totally removing the importance and power of someone…..the forcing of peoples out of the mainstream of political, economic or social life…to push to the sidelines or the periphery of a society or dominant group” (pp1-3). Cram then applies marginalization to the New Zealand society;
“Marginalization occurs when a group of people are pushed to the p…

Propaganda In Hollywood: Case Studies

Estimated Read Time: 4 Minutes 20 Seconds
Propaganda originates from the Latin“Congregatiode Propaganda Fide”, meaning to "spread the faith".  The contemporary definition of the word has roots as far back as World War One when the term became associated with political messages. 
Propaganda has been defined in the modern sense by Jowett and O’Donnell as, “the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist” (2006: 163). 
The seven elements of propaganda contain the ability of propaganda to tap into emotions, source credibility, opinion leaders, using music or other media as a way to trigger an irrational response, group norms, visual symbols and the language used when engaging in propaganda. 
A modern propagandist can gain access to many sources of mass media, including television, movies, and radio, not to mention social media. 
Case Study: Three Kings (1…

Who Is The Most Important Female Character In Video Game History?

Estimated Read Time:  1 Minute 53 Seconds

During 1996, arguably one of the best years in gaming history, many games and characters made their way to our television and computer screens.


Some of these games and characters carved out extraordinary legacies within the gaming world and one of them should be considered the most important female character of all time.  Who Is The Most Important Female Character In Gaming History? Lara Croft, Tomb Raider, was a gaming and cultural phenomenon during the late 1990s and early 2000s. This kick-ass character encouraged many young female gamers to try the medium and a lot of these female gamers have stuck around for the long haul.

Check out the next comic or gaming convention near you and it can be guaranteed that there will be at least one Lara Croft in the crowd. No other female character in gaming has been as popular with females for longer.
Is Lara Croft Just A Sex Symbol? Although many observers may argue that her appearance as a sex symb…

How Do Sources Influence Media Content?

Estimated Read Time: 3 Minutes 36 Seconds “The relationship between journalists and sources has been linked to a tug-of-war where each is trying to manage the other to his or her own advantage” (Tully, 2008: 23).  In order to produce a news story, journalists must rely on a source for information and clarity of the story. Otherwise, the news story would become non-objective, unclear and opinionated, which is what journalists try to avoid. 
Journalists should select sources that will give the most appropriate information to them and therefore provide relevant information to frame a story around. Manning (2001), claims that “news media are usually regarded as a playing an important part in maintaining the flow of ideas and information upon which choices are made” (2001: 133). Manning also claims that “the less powerful are significantly disadvantaged to secure access to the media” (2001: 134). This causes problems due to the elite within society having the majority of the access to conve…

Are Memories Of Old Wars Used As The Fodder For New Ones?

Estimated Read Time: 3 Minutes 36 Seconds
Collective memory, before, during, and after wartime plays a large part in forming a narrative that plays an important role in society.  The collective memory of an event is often expressed through the media, especially within the past 100 years. Habitually, this happens through the voices of bureaucratic institutions or figures. Fishman argues that these bureaucratic institutions are a “fountain of information” (1999 [1980]: 108) and journalists know that there will be vast information within these institutions.

An example of bureaucratic institutions forming a narrative of war and collective memory was when journalists truthfully reported on the statements of Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld regarding weapons that Iraq ‘had in their possession'. These statements made by the dominant social ideology (The United States Government) formed a pre-war (and post 1991 Gulf War) narrative that society could understand; Iraq has weapons and has used…